Germinate 2.1

Welcome to Germinate Grasses

Grasses are among the most important and widely cultivated plants on the Earth. They are grown for grassland and silage production on arable land. Among cultivated grasses, species within the Festuca-Lolium complex predominate, especially in temperate regions. With the aim to facilitate high-throughput genome profiling and genetic mapping within the complex, we have developed a Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) array for five important species: F. pratensis, F. arundinacea, F. glaucescens, L. perenne and L. multiflorum. The DArTFest array contains 7680 probes derived from methyl-filtered genomic representations. In a first marker discovery experiment, performed on 40 genotypes from each species (with the exception of F. glaucescens for which only 7 genotypes were used) we identified 3884 polymorphic markers. The highest number of markers was identified in F. pratensis (1619 to 1821 markers per accession) and L. multiflorum (1507 to 1852 markers per accession). Lower numbers of markers were discovered in F. arundinacea (1000 to 1351 markers per accession), F. glaucescens (1059 to 1101 markers per accession) and L. perenne (821 to 1127 markers per accession). The resources developed in this project will facilitate development of genetic maps in Festuca and Lolium, physical mapping using recombinant lines of Festuca - Lolium, and to follow genomic constitution in Festuca × Lolium hybrids during their breeding. Moreover, it should enable simultaneous marker-assisted selection for multiple traits or specific genome regions. This work is supported by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic (grant award NAZV QH71267) and the Czech Science Foundation (grant award 521/07/P479).

Published Papers

Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca - Lolium complex (

Kopeckı, D., Bartoš, J., Lukaszewski, A.J., Baird, J.H., Cernoch, V., Kölliker, R., Rognli, O.A., Blois, H., Caig, V., Lübberstedt, T., Studer, B., Shaw, P., Doležel, J. and Kilian, A. (2009). Development and mapping of DArT markers within the Festuca – Lolium complex. BMC Genomics 10:473.

Contact Details

If you have any questions about the data contained within this site then you can contact David Kopeckı by email on For any technical enquiries about this site, Germinate or to report problems then please contact

Collage image of example images that will soon be available in the Germinate Grasses database.